Thursday, March 9, 2017

A Tale of Two Benches, Part 2: workbench

We've been through
Some things together
With trunks of memories
Still to come
We found things to do
In stormy weather
Long may you run.

N. Young

Just like 'ol Neil and his beat up hearse, I was attached to my original workbench. Made in my scuffling days fresh out of residency, new to Oregon and fixing an old ranch house, it was my first furniture piece (like most woodworkers). The top was an discarded exterior door with left over number two oak flooring stapled and glued as the working surface. The base was glued together 2x4's. The joinery was wood screws and dowels (hope you don't spit up whatever you're drinking while reading this). And the vise was left behind by the previous owner.


Thing is though, while the base was pretty wobbly especially lengthwise, the top was (and still is) true, stable and capable of withstanding everything I threw at it and on it. Just as Orwell noted that at 50, everyone has the face they deserve, my benchtop developed a greatly prized patina.
Knowing how fond I was of my bench, when I first began ideating about a better workbench, DW wondered if I'd be able to part with 'ol faithful. Once finished with the major part of the shop rehab and DW happy with the new couch/sofa (bench 1) the plan was to make a new base and use the existing top. While picking up wood for the base at Crosscut Hardwoods, I came across a red oak glu-lam 11"W x 3" thick and 8ft long. The price tag on it was $90. After confirming that was indeed the price ( a large project's version of scrap wood was the reason for the price), that I could lift it and that it could fit in my Saab, I was on my way home with the materials for the base and with 1/3rd of a new benchtop. It's important to recognize kismet when it's happening.
As well as my old bench had served me, it had felt too wide and it needed a better vise. Twenty years of using my bench identified definite needs and wants and the glulam had only served as a firm nudge in acknowledging  that the old top was not going to satisfy the major ones.  As a college graduate in general, I read up on the topic- on-line stuff and, as an old college graduate, bought some books on the subject.
Best Workshops, Ed. Fine Woodworking had been purchased while rehabbing the shop. It had a couple of chapters which were useful once I decided to go the new workbench route. The Workbench, L. Schleining presented an overview of a wide variety of benches and accessories- more food for thought. The Workbench Design Book turned me into a Chris Schwarz fan. He is opinionated, a bit of a Luddite and prone to idiosyncrasy. I didn't follow all of his advice because I'm kinda the same way but his 18 principles for building workbenches were a great way of organizing the project and explaining my choices.
Principle No.1: Always overbuild your workbench.
While a 2.5" thick top worked well enough up to now, I knew there was room for improvement. This was especially the case when carving out mortises. Thus, even though the gluelam weighed about 100 lbs, the other sections of the top were going to be 4" thick. This would make for more effective chisel work as well as provide the thickness needed for optimal vise installation. Schwarz also notes there is no such thing as too heavy until you need to move it. Which is why it was useful to build the top in thirds. Woodcrafters in Salem was nice enough to joint the 8/4 maple and oak boards (not enough maple on stock in the lengths and widths needed). My modified MFT's were very helpful in providing infeed and outfeed support. Where as my old Jet TS may not have been up to the task, the SawStop had no trouble.

Principle No. 2: Always overbuild your workbench. (remember Fight Club?)
My wobbly, poorly joined base was the worst flaw of the old bench.
The base this time would use 5" thick uprights joined by open M&T. The spreaders were connected by Bencrafted barrel nuts and bolts. These were thicker and wider than otherwise needed. This was to compensate for the front spreaders' more posterior placement to allow for open space anteriorly. The height adjustable section may appear less stable than a Roubo M&T, but the screw jack is rated at 2.5 tons and the 1 inch pipes providing lateral support are fastened by spax screws.
Principle No.3: Question unusual designs
This is where CS and I part ways. He proposes that unusual designs lead to benches that fail to do their primary purpose optimally- hold wood tight so you can shape it with force and precision. I'm at the age where it's uncertain how many woodworking years are left. So I want the bench to be useful in some capacity after I'm done with it. The height is adjustable from 30" which is a good desk or table height to 45" inches (as shown above). At that height it requires additional support to be rock solid length wise. Most of the time, it's used at the 32 to 38 inch height; at that range, it works the way it's supposed to and lets me choose a position that's easy on my back. The other design feature is open space under the front of the bench. At this time, I prefer to stand when I work in the shop, but I wanted to have option of using a chair or stool.

Why not have different height tables, in the "horses for courses" approach CS advocates? Downsizing is in the future for us and my future shop space is likely to be the area most impacted. The variable height will be even more useful in a small space as will be the open space in the front which can serve to accommodate storage.
Principle No.4: Your bench cannot be too heavy or too long. But its top can easily be too wide or too tall.
I experience the too wide problem with my first bench as its footprint was an exterior door; 36" made for awkward access to the opposing side. I had intended mine to be 27-28 inches wide. It ended up 29 inches wide when I decided to make the back face of the patternmakers vise flush to the front edge.

Trust me, it's easier to do this after the vice has been installed than to modify the template provided to make the cavity needed.
Principle No. 5: Choose the right height-lower is better.
As CS duly notes, workbench height is deeply related to the task and the tools. And that if "you are going to be a crazy American generalist then picking the right height is a futile exercise". He then further dismissively notes that adjustable height benches are usually mounted on casters. Guilty as charged. I'm a generalist by inclination and background (I grew up in So. Central L.A. and Walter Mosely noted that folks of modest means don't have the option of being specialists). I need to make all kinds of stuff and I like to use all kinds of tools- power, Western and Japanese- thus a bench that allows that. His mentions of the Moxon vise allowing for a higher working surface led to looking into a way of integrating that idea into my bench design. But that's the subject of the next post.
Principle No. 6: Where your bench should live in the shop.
I very much share CS's regard for window light and installed as many windows as code allowed in my shop. Unfortunately, I still need overhead fixtures on to have adequate lighting, but having a component of illumination coming from window light is psychologically important.
Principle No. 7: You should be able to move your bench, but not too easily.
CS's solution are hinged casters, which he admits are ugly and depend on being able to lift 400 lbs off the ground and flip in or out with your feet- no thanks. The Footmaster casters installed allow for a locking position that is unbudge-able on the rubble mats the bench stands on and also have the benefit of leveling an uneven floor.
Principle No. 8: Your bench is a 3-D clamping surface. Anything that interferes with that will frustrate you.
At one point I was considering storage below the benchtop. DW advised against it on aesthetic grounds. CS noted that "the job of the workbench is not to store tools". Agreed. But, there was a area between the two spreaders which lent itself to storing tracks and other long and unwieldy items. Turning that into storage was useful and did not compromise aesthetics or primary function.
Principle No: 9: All benches should be able to grip the wood so you can easily work on the faces, the ends and the edges.
Here, CS gives several work holding chores as a litmus test for a benches' utility. In the interest of brevity my bench could handle all those tasks, although some were much more easily accomplished with an Moxon accessory attached.
Principle No. 10: Aprons or skirts are good to look at.
Guilty of this on my first bench as it hid the particle board/oak flooring used. I did build up the edges with 2x4's to provide adequate depth for the dog holes and to allow for using the edges for clamping. N/A for new bench.
Principle No. 11: An overhanging front edge.Do you want it?
As before stated the front 12" are free and clear except for the pattern vise mechanism. So if needed I could use a bench slave. The other face has the stretcher on the same plane even though there's no use for a deadman board. My 91 year old mom would like CS, however (makes sense if you have the book).
Principle No. 12: The tool tray.
I agree with CS-to be avoided as it would collect junk and go against P. #8.
Principle No. 13: Select the best material.
I used hardwoods for the top; as can be seen by my old benchtop, I need stuff that can take a licking and keep on ticking. CS is right about a hardwood top being expensive and tough to flatten. As the top was too heavy to be able to take to the local shop with a drum sander. Thus my excuse for a No. 7 jointer plane. Love that tool, in a sick pup, but not perverse, sorta way.

Principle No. 14: Showcase benches made from exotic materials with showy details are nice.
The base could be made from a softer species, but with mass rather than density, to make it stable. Thus the thermally treated poplar. I like the stuff for bases as it's dimensionally stable and working with sorta brown/yellow wood gets old. My attempt at showy details was limited to condor tails- my first go at dovetails. Grasshopper has much to learn, but as joinery to secure the end caps on that side it's effective and over the years, I've learned to ameliorize my woodworking sins (BTW sin is derived from the Greek harmartia which means to "miss the mark".

Principle No. 15: Basic vise knowledge.
As far as placement of the front vise, I went against his dogma and for good reason. The pattern makers vise is really grippy and my front face has dogholes which allow for securing a long board effectively when going from left to right. For shorter boards my Moxon accessory vise allows me to start from either direction with no difference in how securely the piece is held. Also since my wagon vise is on the other side, it allows me to fasten from the movable dog, then start my planning from left to right.
I put in a fair amount of research prior to selecting the vises used on my bench. Minimizing wracking
was important as my prior vise suffered from a bad case of that. At times to counteract the marked tendency of the vise to separate distally from the area nearest the vise screws required the use of supplemental clamps. Holding long pieces vertically was particularly irritating as a board of similar thickness was required to counteract the pronounced racking the vise exhibited in that usage. On the other hand it was free. In researching front vises, the Emmert vise quickly became my focus, but the expense and rarity led to looking to the smaller (if a 50 lb vise qualifies as small) replicas. If it could indeed be able to hold stuff vertically, horizontally and at an angle securely, it was likely to have solved the racking problem. But looking at the install templates, the thickness of my old benchtop and having the top riddled with hardwood flooring nails was another incentive for a new top.
I also wanted a end vise. If you look at the top photo, there is a Veritas Wonder Dog which served that function with the old vise. The traditional end vises are more versatile than the Benchcrafted wagon vise was the most elegant,  robust and had the smallest footprint. The L-shaped end was concerning due to the bench being already 8 feet long. A vise adding to that length along with the tendency of the less expensive models to buckle up precluded that choice. Aside from the mass and weight of the bench itself, installation of both vises was the most time consuming, challenging, but in the end the most satisfying aspect of building the bench.
Principle No. 16: About those dog holes.
I went with one side using round holes and the other square ones. There are many accessories that make great use of 3/4" round holes. If not needed, they can be easily plugged up with dowels. Square pegs, on the other hand, seem to be a perfect match for a wagon vise. What was really important in choosing to use both was that they be parallel to each other. If your bench is too wide (see P.No 4), it's more difficult to use them together.

The other thing about dog holes is how many of them. It's the Goldilocks thing- not too little, not too much- just right. I decided to err in the too little direction as I did not want the top to look like swiss cheese. I'll likely put a few more holes, but not in the immediate future.
Principle No. 17: Storage on the Bench.
See P. No. 9. CS noted the space between the stretchers. Storage there makes sense and it's inobtrusive.

Principle No. 18: When finishing workbench, less is more.
Watco works for me.

And old workbenches should never die, mine lives on as a countertop.


Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Benches Intermezzo

This post began simply enough. A fellow Lumberjock had requested more details on the built-ins along the wall. They were done as a 90's solution to media storage and bulky TV's, so now for most people, the CD storage and TV cabinetry are, em, obsolete. But they were solutions that allowed the use of a rear-projector TV and audio components in the living room without a lot of hardware dominating that space and with no visible cables. Over the next 20 years, the TV went elsewhere and the audio area became consolidated to the space vacated by the TV. Sometime in the 21st century, we stopped accumulating CD's and DVD's although we still buy them occasionally. The drawers were being used less and less, so it was relatively easy to ignore their faults. My DW occasionally commented that the wood was in need of refinishing. But as anyone who has an old house knows, there always something than needs work.
It turned out that what I thought would be an 30 minute photo shoot when removing the drawers to show construction details turned into a weekend project. And this post developed into a re-visiting of the furnishings I made and then altered as the space evolved. Please bear with a sorta lengthy preamble to show how the built-ins came about. Then I'll get to as well as the evolution and remediation of the built-ins along with changes to the album storage cabinet.
The very crude alteration below is to give an idea of where the archway and the built in cabinet were added to the area in 1995.
The fireplace remained the same except to powder coat the metal face and doors. The archway and cabinet above with drawers below where made with 2x4 framing and plywood/backerboard and plaster on the walls and drywall for the curved ceiling on for the arch.
On the other side I made a cut out of the brick wall to house the rear projection TV. . Conveniently, there was a coat closet on the other side of that area.
That was the only part that was convenient, as making a cut out on a brick wall with a masonry saw generated a awful amount of dust that made its way all over the house- even with the immediate surrounding area closed off with clear tarp.
No photos of that era as using film for that purpose was not worth the time or trouble - I did not start using digital photography until about 2004.
It was worth it, though as the TV only stuck out 4" from the wall. A 40" inch TV in 1995 was a big step up for me as previously I had a 25" CRT (the Stone Ages, huh).
Image result for toshiba 40 inch rear projection tv



14 years later, we finally bought a flat screen TV which went to another room. I had kept my vinyl records and wanted a more accessible place for the turntable.  Until then it had been in the section covered by the stained glass cabinet door. An audio component cabinet was made to fit into the space vacated by the TV. Being able to access the components from the back made cable management less of an irritation. However, our oldest cat Ernie the audiophile was the only one who enjoyed an optimal place for listening.


The wall behind Ernie (R.I.P.- we miss you) was the only place where a double tier album cabinet could go.
In 2012 the living room underwent a major remodel to become a library/music room. Along with that, the audio system in general and computer audio in particular evolved, as did the turntable area. By 2013, I was able to use a small digital server, get rid of the LCD monitor and make the turntable shelf a little higher. The last alteration was to make sections to support the middle ledge as that had begun to sag. It also helped to make pulling out record albums easier.
As this room saw more use, so did the need for more seating. We could not fit another sofa with the record cabinet as originally built. I had anticipated that development and had made the cabinet so it could disassembled and still use the parts. Thus the visible screws.
After making  additional components to match the originals, I gave up the upper shelf space for albums in order to use as side cabinets for the sofa. I've worked with Classique Marble & Granite for more than 20 years and they partitioned the granite top to so it could be used for the end cabinets.
Record storage space  at ground level was lost, but seating is much improved. Both of us can use the lamp in the corner and the daytime ambient light in the room is helpful in the fight against SAD.


Back to the drawers. Part of the problem was that there was a 1/4 inch variance in width between the narrowest which was sliding off the track and the widest which was a tight fit. Those two drawers were disassembled with reassuring difficulty given that they were held together with yellow glue and finish nails (no nailgun or air compressor at the time). I can see the Fine Woodworking crowd wrinkling their nose in dismay, but the drawers and tracks show no signs of compromise otherwise after 20 years. And my manufacturing tolerances have improved. The drawers now slide securely and easily. Festool domino loose tenons are an improvement over the prior glue and nail joinery method.

The drawer faces have a figuring that I highly prize. I had concerns with the stability of wood with this grain pattern. But again, after 20-some years, so far so good.

Saturday, February 11, 2017

A Tale of Two Benches, Part 1: Library Room Bench

As my shop regained functionality, DW asked- so what's your next project for our house?  I had done everything except chairs in our home's furnishings as I did not feel up to the angles and curves involved. We had talked about getting another sofa as our living room/library seating was sparse, but buying one was not terribly exciting. The affordable options had the "looks good right now but will be ratty in several years" feel to them.  The quality ones were out of our price range especially if its secondary use was to be a feline scratch post.
Our evolving living/library/music room at that time was needing additional seating and bookshelf space. We both prefer to do our leisure reading in a supine position but there was only room for one of us on our sofa. So based on that criteria, we would look for a chaise. But we also needed to have seating for larger gatherings in which case a sofa would be the choice. We looked at the sofas with the recliner options but by and large were big, bulky and homely and we definitely didn't want to rock that look. While looking at storage solutions, there were some benches with storage under the seat but these were not designed for books and the ones I saw seemed low quality.
The best option for us to purchase would be a sofa, but the most aesthetically pleasing were the benches  particularly those in the Shaker/A&C style. The concept of a multifunction bench/sofa began to develop. Next was research on seating ergonomics. When I  floated the idea of making a multipurpose seating solution as the inaugural project for the remodeled shop she enthusiastically approved even as my verbalizing of the concept was inadequate for her to fully visualize it. She noted though, that was often the case and expressed confidence that if I was going to go for it, that she would be happy with the results.
I had already done a large project- my kitchen cabinet with other than 90 degree joints, but this project was my opportunity to move further past "square" furnishings. Curiously, once I get into the construction of a project, I invariably space out on the documenting of the process. Thus not as many photos of the more challenging aspects of making the bench. In particular I can't find any photos of the assembly of the side arms.

One notable event was that my Jet table saw went out while making the back supports. When I came in from the shop disgusted with that development, DW simply said- well, it's time to replace the saw. She is a bit of an enabler with many of my interests and we had talked about the dust collection deficiencies of the Jet saw. Further, she had dragged me to the emergency room 18 years ago when I sliced off a small  portion of my left index fingertip on said table saw. She also remembered the large welt on my groin from a kickback incident and a broken window from another kickback event. The only replacement that would be worth the upgrade were the SawStop or Bosch ReAxx flesh sensing brake equipped machines.
So on a Sunday, I went to look at the portable SawStop model as I liked the idea of being able to easily transport and use in locations other than my home's workshop. But on comparing the stablility and fence quality of the contractors model vs the portability of the jobsite model, I came home with the contractor's model. I had managed to keep my hands out of the Jet saw harms way for 16 years ( I did have a jointer vs fingertip event after the tablesaw ouwee), but it's really nice to have a saw with the latest safety features and improved dust collection features. An added bonus was a better fence and more power. While there were no cuts on this project that required the additional power of the SawStop, it did come in handy on the next project.
Festool products are often maligned as rich guy's toys but they were essential for this project.   These  show the clamping options of the MFT's.

The clamps themselves are useful when used with DIY bench setups

The ability of being able to make loose tenon joints at other than 90 degrees along with being able to direct glue ups.

The track saw allowed for being able to make cuts at angles both lengthwise and at blade orientation other than 90 degrees.
It also is a much safer and convenient way to cut plywood panels as well.
The portion of the project that had to outsourced were the cushions. I initially tried a guy who worked in a small town 20 minutes from my house. I was less than impressed with the degree of entropy in  his shop and home as well as his timeline for completing the project. I also had the feeling that he thought I might be a difficult/demanding customer. Fortunately, I found a much more compatible upholsterer in Portland. I only had to speak with him for a few minutes to be confident of his craftsmanship and proficiency. We had much in common. We both enjoyed bouncing back and forth between English and Spanish. He was from East L.A; we reminisced about our younger days. I grew up in South Central, but did stuff often in East L.A. and spent a summer delivering sewing machines in his neighborhood. He did a great job with the cushions and backrest.
Once his work was completed, the rest of the project was straight forward. Rather than use my old standby Watco, I used a polymerized tung oil finish that was easier to build up coats to achieve a furniture quality hand rubbed finish (DW-can you get our furniture finish to look like the Moser chairs. Grrr). Called it a day after 5 coats. Not quite Moser level, but better than Watco.
Casters were used to make it easy to move to our den/TV room  if additional seating is needed there. The wife was very happy with the end result and, as they say, happy wife, happy life.
Andy spends more time on the bench than we do; cat's happy too.

Sunday, January 15, 2017

Workshop furnishings

Twenty years of working in the shop prior to the 2015 remodel gave plenty of time to form a list of needs and wants. The prior two posts had to do with the shop itself- addressing realistically working area, lighting, ceiling height, access and dust management.
Work surfaces and tool storage were as important as the space itself. I was also less frugal there as they were not fixed assets. It's commonly accepted that work benches are as important a tool as anything else in the shop. My ideal workbench was stable, movable and height adjustable. The Festool Domino joiner, Kapex saw and track saw and made me a fan of that system of tools. Thus ordered a MFT table and readily appreciated how well it worked with the track saw. I was working with a lot of sheet goods during the shop and shed projects and for a one man shop, this was an efficient and safe way of doing the work. Thus worth it in terms of value and risk management.
So I purchased another table which was less expensive as I did not need another set of accessories.
As purchased, however, they were not stable or height adjustable. Also the swiss cheese table top was irritating when assembling parts. It was love at first sight when I came across a Vintage Industrial table but wrote it off due to weight, shipping difficulties and, most of all, cost.
Hure Crank Base
As the idea for this kind of base persisted and became more of a need than a want, I began to research screw jacks as that was the key component to the design. The rest of the table base could be done with wood rather than metal and pipe clamps could serve as additional support. The American brand screw jacks were out of my budget however. But in researching screw jacks I came across a Chinese supplier- Jacton Industries who were just great to do business with. I knew nothing about the requirements/specifications/nomenclature of the screw jack mechanism. My only communications were by email. Their service rep- Mr. Warren Lee was as they say affable, able and available.  Every time I sent off an e-mail, there was a response within several hours. I provided him with the size of the table, anticipated weight and desired travel range. The only area where I needed to be precise was the center to center distance between the jacks. This was due to the MFT's top design-an aluminum frame holds a replaceable MDF surface. the part of the base supporting the top needed to be fitted to the aluminum frame to securely hold it

He  provided  scaled drawings of the jacks along with a polite recommendation to build the base first. Once that was done, then I would be able to provide a precise center to center distance for the connecting components between the jacks. I could have saved a significant amount by using shipping by sea rather than air with door to door, but chose the latter as there was less opportunity for stuff to go wrong.
The rest was a snap.
Now the two tables really are multifunctional. While the top can be precisely fitted to the base, it easy to remove. If I need a work table outside the workshop the original legs are easy to re-install and I can use a different top and retain much of the base's utility in the shop. Most of the time, the tables are set up as a miter saw station.

I can also place my drill press between the tables or raise one table while leaving the rest of the arrangement alone.

They also come in handy as outfeed tables for table saw, planer, support for unwieldy plank shaping with a bandsaw and as a dovetail jig.





Sunday, November 27, 2016

Workshop Remediation Completed

Ugh. Back in January, this tale had been started and left "to be continued". Well, blog posting being relatively low on my task priorities, the tale continues. The shed- topic of the last post- was a major detour. It did help clear the shop area out so the work there could proceed. The ceiling was the first task. I don't like drywall and wanted to maximize ceiling height, thus exposing the joists and using  rigid foam insulation with panels between the joist was the initial plan. Cost of solid foam panels to achieve required R value vs high density roll insulation changed the plan to a lower height of the panels between the joists. A visit to my local salvage yard gave to solution to the panels in some corrugated steel panels that required minimal cutting to fit as needed. The last photos on the 5/22/15 post show that part of the job in progress. Here are the finished ceiling photos. I would have loved 10 foot ceilings, but at least I can stand a sheet of plywood up straight.
The next step was taken care of by Dale, a general contractor who also does as much- or as little- as is requested. I had framed the rough openings for the new windows and gutted enough of the existing interior walls that he could re-wire and place a glue-lam beam to support the portion of the load bearing wall that was being removed to improve the workspace.

Here is the area (studs only) where the glue-lam was installed.


Next was removing the vinyl coated tile (VCT). The floor covering was there  when I purchased the property, so I was not sure if it was made/installed in the post-asbestos era. A Home Depot purchased asbestos testing kit confirmed that the tiles and glue were not a health hazard to remove. It was a chore to remove with some portions of the floor much more adherent than others. A concrete floor refinisher had given a reasonable quote on prepping and placing a epoxy finish on the old concrete. That was accomplished with an adventure component (he had to come back and re-apply the finish), but in time for Dale to do his work as scheduled.

I had taken some vacation time to finish the ceiling, and do the interior walls in the late summer. Vacation times can be difficult to re-schedule at my clinic, so there was some anxiety around the floor and interior structural work timing. I was able to install drywall and the wood wainscoting during the time I had scheduled to be off work.
Having tables and machines on rollers and being able to vary the height on my two modified festool tables made the next part of the task much more manageable
Here is drywall stage.

Once the interior was sufficient far along that I could start moving stuff back in, I could address storage. In my younger days, I would have built the cabinets but sometimes bought rather than built is the way to go. I wanted this time to store shop stuff in as portable and space-efficient manner as practically possible and metal tool chests with their thin metal drawers, caster wheels and large load bearing capacity could do a better job than anything I could make. Lowe's had roller cabinets on special, but by the time I had returned to buy them, they were back at regular prices and reading reviews dissuaded me from buying at that price.  As I still had plenty of work to do, I decided to monitor Craigslist for used SnapOn boxes as, other than price, that seemed to be the toolbox of choice. After 3 wks of searching, I found a box at a good price and not too far. Great box, except for weighing 400+ lbs, but that's why it's sturdy.






SnapOn would have been overkill for the remainder of our storage needs, but Gladiator cabinets were a good value on special when purchased.

Harbor Freight boxes are a mixed bag. Their glossy red stuff is well-built if the color is tolerable, but their black boxes were purchases I would not do again.

The last of the boxes was a Kennedy, which I found on Craigslist and is a good value if purchased used.

It seems that most woodworking shops have tools on the walls rather than in cabinets. I went with the latter approach as it is easier to keep clean. Drawers still need to be labeled and organization completed. As of the time I'm getting around to this post, still a work in progress.

Once the shop was functional, It was time to build stuff for the house again. The first project in the new and improved shop was a combination bench that could serve both as a reading reclined couch and a sitting bench as well as provide more book storage. Next post or else I'll fall hopelessly behind in keeping up with this blog.